The background level of antimony in bodily fluids used to be almost undetectable but techniques have improved in recent years so that it is now measurable at parts per trillion. Antimony is used for hardening lead, and in the manufacture of batteries and cables. Antimony ores are mined and then mixed with other metals to form antimony alloys or combined with oxygen to form antimony oxide. Antimony occurs naturally in the earth. It is used in metal alloys, storage batteries, solder, sheet and pipe metal, ammunition, metal bearings, castings, and pewter. Decomposition Products: Antimony, antimony oxides, s ulfur oxides and hydrogen sulfide. However, no Antimony exists in valences of 0, -3, +3, +5. of antimony toxicity wherein 30 firefighters reported elevated antimony levels on hair analyses as some fire fighter station uniforms contain the flame-retardant antimony trioxide. profile for antimony, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Please contact NTP, IARC, or EPA’s IRIS Hotline with questions on cancer and cancer classification. recognizing, evaluating, and treating illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. Antimony poisoning has resulted from drinking acidic fruit juices containing antimony oxide dissolved from the glaze of cheap enamelware containers. Antimony ores are mined and then mixed with other metals to form antimony alloys or combined with oxygen to form antimony oxide. Email: Contact CDC-INFO. Inhalation of antimony trioxide (and similar poorly soluble Sb(III) dust particles such as antimony dust) is considered harmful and suspected of causing cancer. It roughly makes up about 0.00002 percent of the Earth’s crust. The metal is usually alloyed with other alloys to increase its viability in the manufacturing industry where it is used to help make certain semiconductor devices. Fact sheet that answers the most frequently asked questions about a contaminant and its health effects. Everyone is exposed to low levels of antimony in the environment. Little antimony is currently mined in the United States. ANTIMONY TETROXIDE. Summary of mammalian toxicity Mammalian Oral Toxicity Mammalian Oral Toxicity—Acute. Antimony levels as high as 9.7 µg/L have been reported in drinking water. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. Little antimony is currently mined in the United States. Antimony ores are mined and then mixed with other metals to form antimony alloys or combined with oxygen to form antimony oxide. It is brought into this country from other countries for processing. The toxicokinetics and toxicity of the tri- and pentavalent forms vary, with the trivalent form considered to be more toxic. Ainsworth et al. The most widely used antimony compound is antimony trioxide, used as a component in flame retardant applications. It is also used in paints, ceramics, and fireworks, and as enamels for plastics, metal, and glass. Stibine is a metal hydride form of antimony us… Succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for a hazardous substance. Antimony is a silvery-white metal that is found in the earth's crust. 1.8 Is there a medical test to determine whether I have been exposed to Antimony? Usually, the toxic effects of metals are related to the chemical form to which peoples are exposed. CDC has established ranges for urine levels of antimony in the U.S. population: 0.120–0.364 micrograms/gram creatinine. However, there are companies in the United States that produce antimony as a by-product of smelting lead and other metals. According to an article done by De Wolffe, a professor of toxicology at thew University of Amsterdam, antimony toxicity does not exist; and every compound of the metal must be considered to be a separate toxicological entity. Blood antimony levels predominantly reflect recent exposure and are most useful in the diagnosis of acute poisoning. Antimony is a metalloid with an atomic number of 51. The level in urine is normally around 250 ppt (which is equivalent to a mere 0.000000025%). ANTIMONY. Heavy metals are deadly hidden toxins in our food and environment. EINECS 215-576-0. 7440-36-0. Provisional Peer Reviewed Toxicity Values for . Antimony isn't used alone because it breaks easily, but when mixed into alloys, it is used in lead storage batteries, solder, sheet and pipe metal, bearings, castings, and pewter. Long-term occupational exposure of humans has resulted in electrocardiac disorders, respiratory disorders, and possibly increased mortality (Renes, 1953; Breiger et al., 1954). However, these effects are only observed with female rats and after long-term exposure to high dust concentrations. 1.7 How can families reduce the risk of exposure to Antimony? Profile for antimony, Toxicological Antimony trichloride (SbCl 3 ), or antimonous chloride (butter of antimony) , is produced by the interaction of chlorine and antimony or by dissolving antimony trisulphide in hydrochloric acid. In certain cases when the Antimony levels are higher than expected, the associated … 11. (1999) evaluated serum cytokine and immunoglobulin levels in antimony workers at a factory in Korea that produced antimony trioxide as a major product. Summary: Antimony is a silvery-white metal that is found in the earth's crust. DTXSID9061677 Blood concentrations in unexposed individuals rarely exceed 3 µg/L. The tri- and pentavalent forms are the most stable forms of antimony (U.S. EPA, 1992) and are of the most interest in biological systems. Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. It is brought into this country from other countries for processing. ... Kim et al. Elemental antimony metal does not affect human and environmental health. Antimony is a rare element part of the metalloid group in the periodic table. Symptomatic and supportive treatment is most commonly used in antimony toxicity. Acute (short-term) exposure to antimony by inhalation in humans results in effects on the skin and eyes. The study As covered in a recent article, Toxic Chemicals in Children’s Toys, it is one of eight heavy metals limited by the CPSC in the manufacture of products for children 12 years old or younger. These clinics specialize in In accordance with the diantimony trioxide CSR, the NOAEL of 1686 mg/kg bw/d from a subchronic oral toxicity study in rats is selected as being the most relevant for estimating systemic effects that might be associated with dermal uptake of antimony metal or antimony (III) compounds. protozoic treatment. Ingestion. Methods: We included observational studies that measured levels of toxic metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, silver, and thallium) in different specimens (whole blood, plasma, serum, red cells, hair and urine) for patients with ASD and for controls. Antimony oxide is added to textiles and plastics to prevent them from catching fire. Antimony oxide (Sb2O4) Diantimony tetraoxide. The effects of antimony and its compounds on human and environmental health differ widely. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. Chronic Toxic Effects: This product ha s not been fully tested. 888-232-6348 (TTY) Symptoms of antimony poisoning, when exposed to small doses, include headache, nausea, and depression. You … Antimony is a naturally occurring metal often used in combination with lead and zinc, found in metal alloys, paints, ceramics, and fireworks. [] conducted several laboratory experiments to investigate whether elevated antimony concentrations previously found in the organs of wild, short-tailed field voles (Microtus agrestis) at a contaminated grassland site near an antimony smelter were sufficient to cause harmful … 1.4 How can Antimony enter and leave my body? Antimony pentasulphide (Sb 2 S 5) has much the same uses as the trisulphide and has a low level of toxicity. The information in this MRL serves as a screening tool to help public health professionals decide where to look more closely to evaluate possible risk of adverse health effects from human exposure. Antimony ores are mined and then mixed with other metals to form antimony alloys or combined with oxygen to form antimony oxide. Treatment. ATSDR can also tell you the location of occupational and environmental health clinics. Antimony levels for these occupational exposure evaluations ranged from 2.2 to 11.98 mg Sb/m 3. Those who breathed in the compound, like the port workers mentioned above, may suffer from symptoms like pneumoconiosis, gastrointestinal concerns, antimony spots appearing on their skin, and respiratory irritation. Health Dangers of Antimony. This guide will inform you of sources of toxic heavy metals, symptoms of toxicity and how to remove them from your body. Antimony: A silvery-white earth metal which at high levels can be toxic. Antimony is a toxic heavy metal to humans and has serious health implications for those that may be toxic with antimony. Chelation Therapy; Chelation therapy with BAL, DMSA, or DMPS has been shown to improve the course of antimony toxicity. Water in PET bottles may contain higher levels of antimony. RTECS Number: CC9450000 . Antimony is found in ores or other minerals, often combined with oxygen to form antimony trioxide or with sulfur to form stibnite. The toxicology of antimony and its compounds is known from three sources: its medicinal use over centuries, studies of process workers in more recent times, and more recent still, studies of its presence in modern city environments and in domestic environments. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. The MRL is an estimate of the daily human exposure to a hazardous substance that is likely to be without appreciable risk of adverse, non-cancer health effects over a specified duration of exposure. For more information about this message, please visit this page: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, Health Effects of Exposure to Substances and Carcinogens, Community Environmental Health Education Presentations, Case Studies in Environmental Medicine (CSEM), Toxicology Curriculum for Communities Trainer's Manual, Compendium of Papers on MRLs and Health Effects, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. It is also used in paints, ceramics, fireworks, enamels, and glass, and as a fire-retardant in textiles and plastics. Blood levels of antimony can be measured to confirm diagnosis of antimony toxicity. When your body accumulates antimony over time it influences and raises your blood cholesterol while at the same time can decrease your blood sugar level. Toxicity Data: LD50 Oral – Rat >2,000 mg/kg . Antimony is used as a part of the therapy for these conditions and can sometimes have toxic side effects that lead to pancreatitis and cardio toxicity. Inhalation. It is also used as a catalyst to produce polyester, and is found in plastics used for disposable beverage bottles. 1.2 What happens to Antimony when it enters the environment? Basis for revised IDLH: The revised IDLH for antimony compounds is 50 mg Sb/m3 based on acute inhalation toxicity data in animals [Izmerov et al. Hazard Summary. In general, how your body reacts to a toxic level of antimony will depend on how you were exposed. Skin contact. Provides an ongoing assessment of the exposure of the U.S. population to environmental chemicals using biomonitoring. cadmium, mercury). Prioritization of substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure at National Priorities List (NPL) sites. 1.9 What recommendations has the federal government made to protect human health? For more information about this message, please visit this page: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Toxicological Information . The CDC stated in their report that only validated methods should be used for the determination of antimony toxicity. Gross exposure to antimony compounds o … TESTING: If you suspect that you have an elevated Lead level, it is important for you to know that whole blood analysis can reflect only recent exposures and does not correlate well with total body burden of lead. Little antimony is currently mined in the United States. However, even these doses can be fatal when chronically exposed. Other Therapies It is brought into this country from other countries for processing. In general, how your body reacts to a toxic level of antimony will depend on how you were exposed. Quick reference guide providing information such as chemical and physical properties, sources of exposure, routes of exposure, minimal risk levels, children's health, and health effects for a substance. Toxicological This practice has been largely discontinued as a result of antimony toxicity. Routes Of Exposure: Eye contact. Based on limited data, occupational exposure of women to metallic antimony and several antimonials has reportedly … Antimony is a silvery-white metal that is found in the earth's crust. At relatively low levels, lead can participate in synergistic toxicity with other toxic elements (e.g. The form of antimony greatly influences distribution and elimination. Antimony Trioxide (CASRN 1309-64-4) Superfund Health Risk Technical Support Center . 1982] and an analogy to hydrogen chloride [ACGIH 1991] which has a revised IDLH of 50 ppm (75 mg/m3). Antimony can exist in one of four valences in its various chemical and physical forms: -3, 0, +3, and +5. Common symptoms of poisoning from these metals may include gastrointestinal, renal, and neurological symptoms, such as headaches, irritability, psychosis, stupor, coma, and convulsions. Urine testing is the most accurate, reliable, and valid test method for measuring antimony levels in the body. 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