/LastChar 196 For the case r= 1, we have a n = a n 1 5n+ 6 = ( 1)na 0 Yn k=1 (5j+ 1) 1; n= 1;2;:::; (36) and for r= 1 5, we have a n = a n 1 5n = ( 1)n 5nn! Since a change x-x 0 ↦ x of variable brings to the case that the singular point is the origin, we may suppose such a starting situation. In the former case there’s obviously only one Frobenius solution. 334 405.1 509.3 291.7 856.5 584.5 470.7 491.4 434.1 441.3 461.2 353.6 557.3 473.4 Because of (a7), one finds $c _ { 0 } \equiv 1$ and the recursion formula (a8). /FontDescriptor 32 0 R The approach does produce special separatrix-type solutions for the Emden–Fowler equation, where the non-linear term contains only powers. The Method of Frobenius (4.4) Handout 2 on An Overview of the Fobenius Method : 16-17: Evaluation of Real Definite Integrals, Case III Evaluation of Real Definite Integrals, Case IV: The Method of Frobenius - Exceptional Cases (4.4, 4.5, 4.6) 18-19: Theorems for Contour Integration Series and … 9 0 obj /LastChar 196 /Subtype/Type1 /Type/Font Complications can arise if the generic assumption made above is not satisfied. Hence, \begin{equation*} m _ { j } = \sum \{ n _ { i } : 1 \leq i < j \ \text{ and } \ \lambda _ { i } - \lambda _ { j } \in \mathbf{N} \}. It is assumed that all $\nu$ roots are different and one denotes their multiplicities by $n_i$. 5 See Joseph L. Neuringera, The Frobenius method for complex roots of the indicial equation, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, Volume 9, Issue 1, 1978, 71–77. The functions, \begin{equation*} ( \frac { \partial } { \partial \lambda } ) [ u ( z , \lambda ) ( \lambda - \lambda _ { 2 } ) ] = z ^ { \lambda_2 } + \ldots , \end{equation*}. \end{equation*}, Here, $p _ { i } ( \lambda )$ are polynomials of degree at most $N$ determined by setting, \begin{equation*} p _ { i } ( z ) z ^ { \lambda } = \sum _ { n = 0 } ^ { N } a ^ { n _ { i } } z ^ { n } ( \frac { \partial } { \partial z } ) ^ { n } z ^ { \lambda }. \end{equation*}, 1) $\lambda _ { 1 } = \lambda _ { 2 }$. \begin{equation*} ( \frac { \partial } { \partial \lambda } ) ^ { n _ { 1 } + l } [ u ( z , \lambda ) ( \lambda - \lambda _ { 2 } ) ^ { n _ { 1 } } ] = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = \frac { ( n _ { 1 } + l ) ! } /Length 1951 /Widths[272 489.6 816 489.6 816 761.6 272 380.8 380.8 489.6 761.6 272 326.4 272 489.6 1. Putting $\lambda = \lambda _ { i }$ in (a6), obtaining solutions of (a3) can be impossible because of poles of the coefficients $c_j ( \lambda )$. /LastChar 196 The cut along some ray is introduced because the solutions $u$ are expected to have an essential singularity at $z = 0$. a 0x /Type/Font \begin{equation*} u ( z , \lambda _ { i } ) = z ^ { \lambda _ { i } } + \ldots , \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} \frac { \partial } { \partial \lambda } u ( z , \lambda _ { i } ) = ( \operatorname { log } z ) z ^ { \lambda_i } +\dots \dots \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} \left( \frac { \partial } { \partial \lambda } \right) ^ { ( n _ { i } - 1 ) } u ( z , \lambda _ { i } ) = ( \operatorname { log } z ) ^ { n _ { i } - 1 } z ^ { \lambda _ { i } } +\dots \end{equation*}. >> 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 272 272 272 761.6 462.4 /BaseFont/NPKUUX+CMMI8 EnMath B, ESE 319-01, Spring 2015 Lecture 4: Frobenius Step-by-Step Jan. 23, 2015 I expect you to 589.1 483.8 427.7 555.4 505 556.5 425.2 527.8 579.5 613.4 636.6 272] /Type/Font /Name/F6 /Widths[660.7 490.6 632.1 882.1 544.1 388.9 692.4 1062.5 1062.5 1062.5 1062.5 295.1 << Frobenius’ method for solving u00+ b(x) x u0+ c(x) x2 u = 0 (with b;canalytic near 0) is slightly more complicated when the indicial equation ( 1) + b(0) + c(0) = 0 has repeated roots or roots di ering by an integer. Application of Frobenius’ method In order to solve (3.5), (3.6) we start from a plausible representation of B x,B y that is 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 777.8 277.8 777.8 500 777.8 500 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 0 0 777.8 /FontDescriptor 17 0 R The method looks simpler in the most common case of a differential operator, \begin{equation} \tag{a9} L = a ^ { [ 2 ] } ( z ) z ^ { 2 } \left( \frac { d } { d z } \right) ^ { 2 } + a ^ { [ 1 ] } ( z ) z \left( \frac { d } { d z } \right) + a ^ { [ 0 ] } ( z ). 761.6 679.6 652.8 734 707.2 761.6 707.2 761.6 0 0 707.2 571.2 544 544 816 816 272 Regular and Irregular Singularities As seen in the preceding example, there are situations in which it is not possible to use Frobenius’ method to obtain a series solution. Since the general situation is rather complex, two special cases are given first. 544 516.8 380.8 386.2 380.8 544 516.8 707.2 516.8 516.8 435.2 489.6 979.2 489.6 489.6 /Type/Font 27 0 obj /Subtype/Type1 /Name/F5 /FontDescriptor 11 0 R The solution for $l = 0$ may contain logarithmic terms in the higher powers, starting with $( \operatorname { log } z ) z ^ { \lambda _ { 1 } }$. \begin{equation*} u ( z , \lambda ) = z ^ { \lambda } \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { \infty } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) z ^ { k }, \end{equation*}, the coefficients have to be calculated from the requirement (a7). The second solution can contain logarithmic terms in the higher powers starting with $( \operatorname { log } z ) z ^ { \lambda _ { 1 } }$. << Consider roots r1;r2of the indicial equation(3). These solutions are rational functions of $\lambda$ with possible poles at the poles of $c _ { 1 } ( \lambda ) , \ldots , c _ { j - 1} ( \lambda )$ as well as at $\lambda _ { 1 } + j , \ldots , \lambda _ { \nu } + j$. also Fuchsian equation). /LastChar 196 481.5 675.9 643.5 870.4 643.5 643.5 546.3 611.1 1222.2 611.1 611.1 611.1 0 0 0 0 also Singular point). 888.9 888.9 888.9 888.9 666.7 875 875 875 875 611.1 611.1 833.3 1111.1 472.2 555.6 531.3 826.4 826.4 826.4 826.4 0 0 826.4 826.4 826.4 1062.5 531.3 531.3 826.4 826.4 /FontDescriptor 26 0 R In particular, this can happen if the coe cients P(x) and Q(x) in the ODE y00+ P(x)y0+ Q(x)y = 0 fail to be de ned at a point x 0. 875 531.3 531.3 875 849.5 799.8 812.5 862.3 738.4 707.2 884.3 879.6 419 581 880.8 << 500 500 611.1 500 277.8 833.3 750 833.3 416.7 666.7 666.7 777.8 777.8 444.4 444.4 There is at least one Frobenius solution, in each case. 1002.4 873.9 615.8 720 413.2 413.2 413.2 1062.5 1062.5 434 564.4 454.5 460.2 546.7 The poles are compensated for by multiplying $u ( z , \lambda )$ at first with powers of $\lambda - \lambda _ { i }$ and differentiation by the parameter $\lambda$ before setting $\lambda = \lambda _ { i }$. 275 1000 666.7 666.7 888.9 888.9 0 0 555.6 555.6 666.7 500 722.2 722.2 777.8 777.8 << P1 n=0Anx. >> << 343.8 593.8 312.5 937.5 625 562.5 625 593.8 459.5 443.8 437.5 625 593.8 812.5 593.8 30 0 obj 272 272 489.6 544 435.2 544 435.2 299.2 489.6 544 272 299.2 516.8 272 816 544 489.6 /BaseFont/FQHLHM+CMBX12 The easy generic case occurs if the indicial polynomial has only simple zeros and their differences $\lambda _ { i } - \lambda _ { j }$ are never integer valued. /Name/F9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 642.9 885.4 806.2 736.8 /Widths[1062.5 531.3 531.3 1062.5 1062.5 1062.5 826.4 1062.5 1062.5 649.3 649.3 1062.5 /Subtype/Type1 783.4 872.8 823.4 619.8 708.3 654.8 0 0 816.7 682.4 596.2 547.3 470.1 429.5 467 533.2 299.2 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 489.6 734 435.2 489.6 707.2 761.6 489.6 883.8 992.6 2≥ − − =−for n n n a an n. Since we begin our evaluation of anat n= 2, this final recursion relation will yield valid values for an(since the denominator is never zero for .) 2. 24 0 obj Method of Frobenius. Suppose one is given a linear differential operator, \begin{equation} \tag{a1} L = \sum _ { n = 0 } ^ { N } a ^ { [ n ] } ( z ) z ^ { n } \left( \frac { d } { d z } \right) ^ { n }, \end{equation}, where for $n = 0 , \ldots , N$ and some $r > 0$, the functions, \begin{equation} \tag{a2} a ^ { [ n ] } ( z ) = \sum _ { i = 0 } ^ { \infty } a _ { i } ^ { n } z ^ { i } \end{equation}. named for the German mathematician Georg Frobenius (1848—19 17), who discovered the method in the 1870s. 935.2 351.8 611.1] 1277.8 811.1 811.1 875 875 666.7 666.7 666.7 666.7 666.7 666.7 888.9 888.9 888.9 An infinite series of the form in (9) is called a Frobenius series. << 756.4 705.8 763.6 708.3 708.3 708.3 708.3 708.3 649.3 649.3 472.2 472.2 472.2 472.2 472.2 472.2 472.2 472.2 583.3 583.3 0 0 472.2 472.2 333.3 555.6 577.8 577.8 597.2 826.4 295.1 531.3] Here, $\epsilon > 0$, and for an equation in normal form, actually $\epsilon \geq r$. 734 761.6 666.2 761.6 720.6 544 707.2 734 734 1006 734 734 598.4 272 489.6 272 489.6 ���ů�f4[rI�[��l�rC\�7 ����Kn���&��͇�u����#V�Z*NT�&�����m�º��Wx�9�������U]�Z��l�۲.��u���7(���"Z�^d�MwK=�!2��jQ&3I�pݔ��HXE�͖��. /BaseFont/LQKHRU+CMSY8 15 0 obj This could happen if r 1 = r 2, or if r 1 = r 2 + N. In the latter case there might, or might not, be two Frobenius solutions. The leading term $b _ { l0 } ( \operatorname { log } z ) ^ { l } z ^ { \lambda _ { i } }$ is useful as a marker for the different solutions. /FirstChar 33 500 1000 500 500 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SINGULAR POINTS AND THE METHOD OF FROBENIUS 291 AseachlinearcombinationofJp(x)andJ−p(x)isasolutiontoBessel’sequationoforderp,thenas wetakethelimitaspgoeston,Yn(x)isasolutiontoBessel’sequationofordern.Italsoturnsout thatYn(x)andJn(x)arelinearlyindependent.Thereforewhennisaninteger,wehavethegeneral 295.1 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 531.3 295.1 /Subtype/Type1 324.7 531.3 590.3 295.1 324.7 560.8 295.1 885.4 590.3 531.3 590.3 560.8 414.1 419.1 495.7 376.2 612.3 619.8 639.2 522.3 467 610.1 544.1 607.2 471.5 576.4 631.6 659.7 You were also shown how to integrate the equation to … >> 0 is y(x) … cxe1=x, which could not be captured by a Frobenius expansion. /FirstChar 33 /Name/F2 { l ! } /Name/F4 {\displaystyle u' (z)=\sum _ {k=0}^ {\infty } (k+r)A_ {k}z^ {k+r-1}} 444.4 611.1 777.8 777.8 777.8 777.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Note that aFrobenius series is generally not power series. 384.3 611.1 675.9 351.8 384.3 643.5 351.8 1000 675.9 611.1 675.9 643.5 481.5 488 with $\lambda = \lambda _ { 2 }$ in the second function, are two linearly independent solutions of the differential equation (a9). 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 606.7 816 748.3 679.6 728.7 811.3 765.8 571.2 /LastChar 196 /BaseFont/XKICMY+CMSY10 ACM95b/100b Lecture Notes Caltech 2004 545.5 825.4 663.6 972.9 795.8 826.4 722.6 826.4 781.6 590.3 767.4 795.8 795.8 1091 Indeed (a1) and (a2) imply, \begin{equation*} L ( u ( z , \lambda ) ) = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = [ \sum _ { i = 0 } ^ { \infty } \sum _ { n = 0 } ^ { N } a _ { i } ^ { n } z ^ { n + i } ( \frac { \partial } { \partial z } ) ^ { n } ] [ \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { \infty } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) z ^ { \lambda + k } ] = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = \sum _ { i = 0 } ^ { \infty } \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { \infty } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) z ^ { i } \sum _ { n = 0 } ^ { N } a _ { i } ^ { n } z ^ { n } \left( \frac { \partial } { \partial z } \right) ^ { n } z ^ { \lambda + k } = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = \sum _ { i = 0 } ^ { \infty } \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { \infty } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) z ^ { i } p _ { i } ( \lambda + k ) z ^ { \lambda + k } = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = z ^ { \lambda } \sum _ { j = 0 } ^ { \infty } z ^ { j } \left[ \sum _ { i + k = j } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) p _ { i } ( \lambda + k ) \right] = \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} = c _ { 0 } z ^ { \lambda } \pi ( \lambda ) + \end{equation*}, \begin{equation*} + z ^ { \lambda } \sum _ { j = 1 } ^ { \infty } z ^ { j } \left[ c _ { j } ( \lambda ) \pi ( \lambda + j ) + \sum _ { k = 0 } ^ { j - 1 } c _ { k } ( \lambda ) p _ { j - k } ( \lambda + k ) \right]. In this case the leading behavior of y(x) as x ! Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (26 October 1849 – 3 August 1917) was a German mathematician, best known for his contributions to the theory of elliptic functions, differential equations, number theory, and to group theory.He is known for the famous determinantal identities, known as Frobenius–Stickelberger formulae, governing elliptic functions, and for developing the theory of biquadratic forms. also Analytic function). For instance, with r= If r 1 −r 2 ∈ Z, then both r = r 1 and r = r 2 yield (linearly independent) solutions. /FirstChar 33 767.4 767.4 826.4 826.4 649.3 849.5 694.7 562.6 821.7 560.8 758.3 631 904.2 585.5 Commonly, the expansion point can be taken as, resulting in the Maclaurin series (1) Method of Frobenius Example First Solution Second Solution (Fails) What is the Method of Frobenius? How to Calculate Coe cients in the Hard Cases L. Nielsen, Ph.D. 413.2 590.3 560.8 767.4 560.8 560.8 472.2 531.3 1062.5 531.3 531.3 531.3 0 0 0 0

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