Around 1640, Johannes Hevelius established his astronomical observatory in the Old Town. Gdańsk lies at the mouth of the Motława River, connected to the Leniwka, a branch in the delta of the nearby Vistula River, which drains 60 percent of Poland and connects Gdańsk with the Polish capital, Warsaw. [19] Based on the date in Adalbert's vita, the city celebrated its millennial anniversary in 1997. In general, it is damp, variable, and mild. Danzig law). In 1300, the town had an estimated population of 2,000. At that time, Babylon seems to have been a minor city or perhaps a large port town on the Euphrates River at the point where it runs closest to the river Tigris. ... British and French armies fought for power in India with the help of Indian troops known as. Ten years later, in August 1980, Gdańsk Shipyard was the birthplace of the Solidarity trade union movement. [125] While the Germans were interned and expelled, close to 5 million settlers[133][134] were either attracted or forced to settle the areas between 1945 and 1950. -As a result of trade, Changan, with a population of about two million, became the wealthiest city in the world.-Changan was filled with temples and palaces, and its markets were filled with goods from all over Europe, Africa, and Asia. Both the Polish and the German-speaking population largely opposed the Prussian annexation and wished the city to remain part of Poland. Troy, ancient city in northwestern Anatolia that holds an enduring place in literature and archaeology. About 50 percent of members of the Jewish Community of Danzig had left the city within a year after a Pogrom in October 1937,[73] after the Kristallnacht riots in November 1938 the community decided to organize its emigration[74] and in March 1939 a first transport to Palestine started. There is no archaeological evidence of a significant settlement prior to the 4th century BCE but there had been small communities in the area since Neolithictimes as attested by local rock art. [65] Dozens of Polish surnames were forcibly Germanized,[65] while Polish symbols that reminded that for centuries Gdańsk was part of Poland were removed from the city's landmarks, such as the Artus Court and the Neptune's Fountain. When they were completed in 1996 they were the world’s first inclined high-rise buildings . Winter lasts from December to March and includes periods of snow. Mercantilism. In December 1970, Gdańsk was the scene of anti-regime demonstrations, which led to the downfall of Poland's communist leader Władysław Gomułka. [36] In 1358, Danzig joined the Hanseatic League, and became an active member in 1361. For other uses, see, Mansion of the Society of Saint George and, Sculptures at the top of the Golden House. The city's Latin name may be given as either Gedania, Gedanum or Dantiscum; the variety of Latin names reflects the mixed influence of the city's Polish, German and Kashubian heritage. Więcej pytań niż odpowiedzi", http://www.kurierkolejowy.eu/aktualnosci/22716/Jeszcze-szybciej-z-Warszawy-do-Gdanska.html, "Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza: Wybory samorządowe", "Geografia wyborcza – Wybory samorządowe – Państwowa Komisja Wyborcza", "Wybory Samorządowe 2010 – Geografia wyborcza – Województwo pomorskie – – m. Gdańsk", "Institute of Fluid Flow Machinery of the Polish Academy of Sciences", "The Gdańsk Institute for Market Economics", Extensive Danzig, East & West Prussian Historical Materials, Defence of the Polish Post Office in Danzig, Monument to the Fallen Shipyard Workers of 1970, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, American Foundation for AIDS Research (AMFAR), Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, Spanish Organization for the Blind (ONCE), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gdańsk&oldid=996169859, Populated places established in the 10th century, Cities and towns in Pomeranian Voivodeship, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with Polish-language sources (pl), Articles with dead external links from September 2019, Articles with permanently dead external links, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Articles with dead external links from July 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with possible motto list, Articles containing Kashubian-language text, Articles with disputed statements from August 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2014, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 1: World Meteorological Organization, Bayer Shared Service Centre – finance & accounting, Cognor – steel, engineering, capital goods, Energa Trading – electrical and heat energy, Polnord Energobudowa – construction company, Transcom WorldWide – business processing outsourcing, Weyerhaeuser Cellulose Fibres – cellulose fibre manufacturing, OIE Support – education services (part of, brick gothic town gates, i.e. Chester; The gates (known as Bars) of the York city walls; Estonia: Tallinn Gate in Pärnu; France: Porte de Joigny and Porte de Sens in Villeneuve-sur-Yonne The city recognised him as ruler of Poland and paid the enormous sum of 200,000 guldens in gold as payoff ("apology"). The city's Hala Olivia was a venue for the official 2009 EuroBasket,[111] and the Ergo Arena was one of the 2013 Men's European Volleyball Championship, 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship and 2016 European Men's Handball Championship venues. Selwyn Ilan Troen, Benjamin Pinkus, Merkaz le-moreshet Ben-Guryon, ethnic cleansing and executions of Polish population, flight and expulsion of the German-speaking majority of the city's population in 1945, Polish defenders of the Polish Post Office, 2013 Men's European Volleyball Championship, 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship, 2016 European Men's Handball Championship, Instytut Maszyn Przepływowych im. The city's history is complex, with periods of Polish, Prussian and German rule, and periods of autonomy or self-rule as a free city state. Like most legislative bodies, the City Council divides itself into committees which have the oversight of various functions of the city government. Its 535,061 (2017) inhabitants make it the 13th-largest city in Germany as well as the third-largest city in … STUDY. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466) between Poland and the Teutonic Order the warfare ended permanently. LONDON: Britain's trade agreement with the European Union removes a 4.5-year-old fear of crashing out of the bloc without trading arrangements in place, but … • American architects Philip Johnson and John Burgee had to come up with a solution to a complex site on one of Madrid’s most important boulevards, the Paseo de la Castellana. With the growth of Nazism among Germans, Anti-Polish sentiment increased and both Germanisation and segregation policies intensified, in the 1930s the rights of local Poles were commonly violated and limited by the local administration. Free trade among its members was one of the EU's founding principles, and it is committed to opening up world trade as well. Council members are elected directly every four years. Gdańsk averages 1,700 hours of sunshine per year. On special occasions the city is also referred to as "The Royal Polish City of Gdańsk" (Polish Królewskie Polskie Miasto Gdańsk, Latin Regia Civitas Polonica Gedanensis, Kashubian Królewsczi Polsczi Gard Gduńsk). Log in. Their home stadium, Stadion Miejski, was one of the four Polish stadiums to host the UEFA Euro 2012 competition. [130], Poles from other parts of Poland replaced the former German population, with the first settlers arriving in March 1945. The Danzig Research Society (in German Naturforschende Gesellschaft in Danzig) founded in 1743 was one of the first of its kind. Its opposition to the Communist regime led to the end of Communist Party rule in 1989, and sparked a series of protests that overthrew the Communist regimes of the former Soviet bloc. In September 1981, to deter Solidarity, Soviet Union launched Exercise Zapad-81, the largest military exercise in history, during which amphibious landings were conducted near Gdańsk. • Athens is the second oldest city in Europe, dating back to about 3000 BC. [55] The mayor of the city stepped down from his office due to the annexation,[56] and also notable city councilor Jan (Johann) Uphagen, historian and art collector, whose Baroque house is now a museum, resigned as a sign of protest against the annexation. Since 1454, the city was authorized by the King to mint Polish coins. [66] From 1937, the employment of Poles by German companies was prohibited, and already employed Poles were fired, the use of Polish in public places was banned and Poles were not allowed to enter several restaurants, in particular those owned by Germans. the author takes full responsibility for this publication and the commission is not responsible for the use to which the information contained in this publication may be put. By 1998, Tricity constituted an absolute majority of the population; almost half of the inhabitants of the new region live in the centre. The city was officially annexed by Nazi Germany and incorporated into the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia. In the process, tens of thousands of refugees were killed. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. [46], On 15 May 1457, Casimir IV of Poland granted the town the Great Privilege, after he had been invited by the town's council and had already stayed in town for five weeks. Average temperatures range from −1.0 to 17.2 °C (30 to 63 °F) and average monthly rainfall varies 17.9 to 66.7 millimetres (1 to 3 in) per month with a rather low annual total of 507.3 millimetres (20 in). Trade and commerce in the medieval world developed to such an extent that even relatively small communities had access to weekly markets and, perhaps a day’s travel away, larger but less frequent fairs, where the full range of consumer goods of the period was set out to tempt the shopper and small retailer. Georgia, a nation in Europe, is also known as the “Land of the Golden Fleece.” The country gets this nickname from ancient Greek mythology of the Golden Fleece. Hitler used the issue of the status of the city as a pretext for attacking Poland and in May 1939, during a high level meeting of German military officials explained to them: "It is not Danzig that is at stake. Some of the other Medieval towns in Europe may be more compact or have their city walls preserved, but Prague has an unmatched vibe that helps bring you back to the past. Amateur sports are played by thousands of Gdańsk citizens and also in schools of all levels (elementary, secondary, university). [31], After a series of Polish-Teutonic Wars, in the Treaty of Kalisz (1343) the Order had to acknowledge that it would hold Pomerelia as a fief from the Polish Crown. An economic theory that depends on a greater amount of exports than imports to increase a country's supply of gold and silver. The settlers can be grouped according to their background: "Danzig" redirects here. Join now. With a population of 470,907,[1] Gdańsk is the capital and largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and one of the most prominent cities within the cultural and geographical region of Kashubia. The founding of a new territory that has ties to its home country or mother country. Polish King John III Sobieski regularly visited Hevelius numerous times. However, it has been a “potential candidate country” since 2000 when it was recognized. In 1569 a Mennonite Church was founded here. Gdańsk has a climate with both oceanic and continental influences. The city also endured heavy Allied and Soviet air raids. The Bronze-age acropolis, or [62] This led to a considerable tension between the local German administration and the Republic of Poland. Some of the ships were sunk by the Soviets, including the Wilhelm Gustloff after an evacuation was attempted at neighbouring Gdynia. Whatever early role the city played in the ancient world is lost to modern-day scholars becau… German citizens began to flee en masse as the Soviet Red Army advanced, composed of both spontaneous flights driven by rumors of Soviet atrocities, and organised evacuation starting in the summer of 1944 which continued into the spring of 1945. Start studying European trade. In return, the king would grant Jason with the throne of Thessaly. Though his exact fate is not known, it is believed that Constantine was killed leading a last desperate attack against the enemy. [75] By September 1939 barely 1,700 mostly elderly Jews remained. [65] German students attacked and expelled Polish students from the technical university. Gdańsk's dry winters and the precipitation maximum in summer are indicators of continentality. An economic theory that depends on a greater amount of exports than imports to increase a country's supply of gold and silver. Together with the nearby port of Gdynia, Gdańsk is also a notable industrial centre. Subsequently, the city was taken by Danish princes in 1301. In 2001 there were 60,436 students, including 10,439 graduates. [citation needed] Amber processing is also an important part of the local economy, as the majority of the world's amber deposits lie along the Baltic coast. From Prague to Rome to Seville, and everywhere in between, these cities are stunning centers for art, fashion, food, and more. Log in. In addition, it will also host the 2020 UEFA Europa League Final. The city's longest serving president was Robert von Blumenthal, who held office from 1841, through the revolutions of 1848, until 1863. In the early-modern age, Gdańsk was a royal city of Poland. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Gdańsk has also topped rankings for the quality of life, safety and living standards worldwide. The remaining German residents of the city who had survived the war fled or were expelled to postwar Germany. The Free City had its own constitution, national anthem, parliament, and government (Senat). The city was repopulated by ethnic Poles; up to 18 percent (1948) of them had been deported by the Soviets in two major waves from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union, such as the eastern portion (Kresy) of pre-war Poland. Phillip II expanded and fortified the city after rebuilding it and made it the most important city of the time and was known as Thanes. Beside a majority of German-speakers,[51] whose elites sometimes distinguished their German dialect as Pomerelian,[52] the city was home to a large number of Polish-speaking Poles, Jewish Poles, Latvian speaking Kursenieki, Flemings and Dutch. James Minahan, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, International history of the twentieth century and beyond Antony Best page 181 Routledge; 2 edition (30 July 2008), CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, ';Jeszcze szybciej z Warszawy do Gdańska,' Kurier Kolejowy 9 January 2015, sfn error: no target: CITEREFKamusella2004 (. These cities in Europe were voted the best by Travel + Leisure readers. [68][69][70][71][72] After the German proposals to solve the three main issues peacefully were refused, German-Polish relations rapidly deteriorated. Roberta Szewalskiego PAN, List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland, Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland during and after World War II, "Poland – largest cities (per geographical entity)", "Millions at Gdansk's St. Dominic's Fair", "Quality of Life Index by City 2019 Mid-Year", "The Crane: past and present – Crane – National Maritime Museum in Gdańsk", "II Pokój Toruński i przyłączenie Gdańska do Rzeczpospolitej", "History of Gdańsk – Lonely Planet Travel Information", "Die "Lösung der Judenfrage" in der Freien Stadt Danzig", "Armia Czerwona na Pomorzu Gdańskim 1945–1947 (Red Army in Gdańsk Pomerania 1945–1947)", "W Gdańsku otwarto Europejskie Centrum Solidarności", "Italy's Mogherini and Poland's Tusk get top EU jobs", "Gdansk mayor Pawel Adamowicz dies after being stabbed in heart on stage", "Mayor of Polish city dies after stabbing at charity event", "Polish city of Gdansk wins Princess of Asturias Award", "World Weather Information Service – Gdańsk", https://archive.today/20130124034524/http://www.fineos.com/about/locations/, "Elizabethan playhouse in Poland to host work by Shakespeare's Globe", Polish Pendolino launches 200 km/h operation, Railway Gazette International, "Pendolino z Trójmiasta do Warszawy. Southern Europe, also known as Mediterranean Europe, comprises fifteen countries and the British Overseas territory of Gibraltar, and has a total population of more than 150 million people. [47] By 1457, New Town was demolished completely, no buildings remained.[31]. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. Subsequently, the Knights took over control of the town. During the demonstrations in Gdańsk and Gdynia, military as well as the police opened fire on the demonstrators causing several dozen deaths. When Krenides was attacked by Thracians the inhabitants looked to Phili… [32] Some authors accept the number given in the original sources,[33] while others consider 10,000 to have been a medieval exaggeration, although scholarly consensus is that a massacre of some magnitude did take place. [37] Around 1377, the Old Town was equipped with city rights as well. Poland threatened to intervene, and the Brandenburgians left the town. [30] While overall the town was far from an important trade centre at that time, it had some relevance in the trade with Eastern Europe. Germany attacked Poland on 1 September after having signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union (which included a Secret Part regarding the division of Poland and the Baltic States between the two countries) in late August and after postponing the attack three times. by Paul Milliman page 73, 2013. [20], Archaeological evidence for the origins of the town was retrieved mostly after World War II had laid 90 percent of the city centre in ruins, enabling excavations. Out of the 2,938 Jewish community in the city 1,227 were able to escape from the Nazis before the outbreak of war. [131] On 30 March 1945, the Gdańsk Voivodeship was established as the first administrative Polish unit in the Recovered Territories. [15][16][17] In the Kashubian language the city is called Gduńsk. this project has been financed with the support of the european commission. Main contractor. In the early 1930s, the local Nazi Party capitalised on pro-German sentiments and in 1933 garnered 50% of vote in the parliament. the city of ----- exported their trade through convoys and also through major trade routes in Europe venice contributed to the revival of Europe by re-openign the mass amounts of trading in Europe after seizing Crete after post 4th crusade. After the Siege of Danzig (1577), lasting six months, the city's army of 5,000 mercenaries was utterly defeated in a field battle on 16 December 1577. [38] In 1380, the New Town was founded as the third, independent settlement. Gdańsk (/ɡəˈdænsk/ gə-DANSK, also US: /ɡəˈdɑːnsk/ gə-DAHNSK;[2] Polish: [ɡdaj̃sk] (listen); German: Danzig [ˈdantsɪç] (listen); Kashubian: Gduńsk) is a city on the Baltic coast of northern Poland. [20] It is generally thought that Mieszko I of Poland erected a stronghold on the site in the 980s, thereby connecting the Polish state ruled by the Piast dynasty with the trade routes of the Baltic Sea. [126] Approximately 1% (100,000) of the German civilian population residing east of the Oder–Neisse line perished in the fighting prior to the surrender in May 1945. [23], The site was ruled as a duchy of Poland by the Samborides. The area of the region was thus extended from 7,394 to 18,293 square kilometres (2,855 to 7,063 sq mi) and the population rose from 1,333,800 (1980) to 2,198,000 (2000). Gdańsk Voivodeship was extended in 1999 to include most of former Słupsk Voivodeship, the western part of Elbląg Voivodeship and Chojnice County from Bydgoszcz Voivodeship to form the new Pomeranian Voivodeship. In English (where the diacritic over the "n" is frequently omitted) the usual pronunciation is /ɡəˈdænsk/ or /ɡəˈdɑːnsk/. The name of a settlement was recorded after St. Adalbert's death in AD 997 as urbs Gyddanyzc[10] and it was later written as Kdanzk in 1148, Gdanzc in 1188, Danceke[11] in 1228, Gdańsk in 1236,[12] Danzc in 1263, Danczk in 1311,[13] Danczik in 1399,[10][14] Danczig in 1414, Gdąnsk in 1656. It issued its own stamps as well as its currency, the Danzig gulden. Home Top 10: The most popular tourist attractions in Germany Germany is more attractive than ever, with an 11-percent growth in the number of overnight stays for the first quarter. [40], In 1440, the city participated in the foundation of the Prussian Confederation which was an organisation opposed to the rule of the Teutonic Knights. Was killed leading a last Great plague and a slow economic decline due to the Polish crown to the! Considerable tension between the Greeks and the centre of the city also endured heavy and... Is the vita of Saint George and, Sculptures at the top of the slave trade affect African stated the! 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